This paper presents an improved multi-input multi-output based grid-forming (MIMO-GFM) converter control method using multivariable feedback control. Although the original MIMO-GFM control is proven to be superior and robust using only low-order controllers, it is easily affected by high-frequency components, particularly for the converter without inner cascaded voltage and current loops and when it is connected into a strong grid. The proposed method selects frequency and internal voltage as state variables to be directly controlled while effectively eliminating the impact of high-frequency components without increasing system complexity. The H∞ synthesis is used to tune the parameters to obtain an optimized performance. Experimental results and system-level simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Original languageEnglish
Article number10106448
JournalI E E E Transactions on Industry Applications
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)4334 - 4341
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • H synthesis
  • Multi-input multi-output grid-forming (MIMO-GFM)
  • direct states control
  • loops coupling
  • power converter


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