This paper explores the justifications attached to naval battles in the Late Republican civil war, with a particular focus on the battles of Naulochus 36 and Actium 31 BCE. In so doing, we can readdress the meaning of the Augustan phrase terra marique esset parta victoriis pax (Res Gestae 13). From one perspective, the slogan is a reflection of the ideology of the new regime. But from another perspective, there is a further and significantly under-explored dimension of the slogan terra marique: namely, the military dimension of the motto. Cooperation of land and naval forces has always been a predominant feature in naval warfare. It will consequently be suggested that the meaning of this slogan can be better interpreted in the light of naval strategy and in combined operations, with Naulochus and Actium as campaign victories, rather than straightforwardly isolated naval victories.
|Title of host publication||in W. Havener, H. Börm & U. Gotter (eds.) A Culture of Civil War? The bellum civile in Late Republican Rome|
|Publisher||Classical Press of Wales|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 2021|
Lange, C. H. (Accepted/In press). Naval Operations during the Late Republican Civil War (38-31 BCE): Victories by Land and Sea. In in W. Havener, H. Börm & U. Gotter (eds.) A Culture of Civil War? The bellum civile in Late Republican Rome Classical Press of Wales.