Offshore Wind Farm Black Start Service Integration: Review and Outlook of Ongoing Research

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A review of the ongoing research on black start (BS) service integrated with offshore wind farms (OWFs) is presented in this paper. The overall goal is to firstly gain a better understanding of the BS capabilities required by modern power systems. Subsequently, the challenges faced by OWFs as novel BS service providers are presented as well as an outlook on the ongoing research which may provide solutions to these. OWFs have the potential to be a fast and environmentally friendly technology to provide BS services for power system restoration and, thereby, ensure resiliency after blackouts. As a power electronic based system, OWFs can be equipped with a self-starter in the system in order to perform BS. The self-start unit could be a synchronous generator (SG), or a power electronic unit such as a grid-forming (GFM) converter. Preliminary BS studies performed in PSCAD/EMTDC are presented in a simplified OWF system via a SG as self-start unit. Consequently, technical challenges during the BS procedure in an OWF benchmark system are outlined via theoretical discussions and simulations results. This is useful to understand the threats to power electronics during BS. Finally, the most relevant GFM strategies in the state-of-the-art literature are presented and their application to OWF BS is discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6286
Issue number23
Number of pages25
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020


  • Black start
  • Offshore wind farms
  • Power system restoration
  • Power system resiliency
  • Island operation
  • Battery energy storage system (BESS)
  • Grid forming converters


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