On the Secondary Control Architectures of AC Microgrids: An Overview

Yousef Khayat, Qobad Shafiee, Rasool Heydari, Mobin Naderi, Tomislav Dragicevic, John Simpson-Porco, Florian Dörfler, Mohammad Fathi, Frede Blaabjerg, Josep M. Guerrero, Hassan Bevrani

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Abstract

Communication infrastructure (CI) in microgrids (MGs) allows for the application of different control architectures for the secondary control (SC) layer. The use of new SC architectures involving CI is motivated by the need to increase MG resilience and handle the intermittent nature of distributed generation units (DGUs). The structure of secondary control is classified into three main categories including centralized SC (CSC) with a CI, distributed SC (DISC) generally with a low data rate CI, and decentralized SC (DESC) with communication-free infrastructure. To meet the MGs operational constraints and optimize performance, control and communication must be utilized simultaneously in different control layers. In this survey, we review and classify all types of SC policies from CI based methods to communication-free policies, including: CSC, averaging based DISC, consensus-based DISC methods, containment pinning consensus, event-triggered DISC, washout filter based DESC, and state-estimation based DESC. Each structure is scrutinized from the view point of the relevant literature. Challenges such as clock drifts, cyber-security threats, and the advantage of event-triggered approaches are presented.
Fully decentralized approaches based on state-estimation and observation methods are also addressed. Although these approaches eliminate the need of any CI for the voltage and frequency restoration, during black start process or other functionalities related to the tertiary layer a CI is required. Power hardware-in-the-loop (PHiL) experimental tests are carried out to compare the merits and applicability of the different SC structures.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Number of pages19
ISSN0885-8993
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Nov 2019

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Communication
State estimation
Distributed power generation
Restoration
Clocks
Hardware
Electric potential

Keywords

  • Centralized control
  • Decentralized control
  • Distributed control
  • Communication-free control
  • Event-triggered control
  • Microgrids
  • Secondary control

Cite this

Khayat, Yousef ; Shafiee, Qobad ; Heydari, Rasool ; Naderi, Mobin ; Dragicevic, Tomislav ; Simpson-Porco, John ; Dörfler, Florian ; Fathi, Mohammad ; Blaabjerg, Frede ; Guerrero, Josep M. ; Bevrani , Hassan . / On the Secondary Control Architectures of AC Microgrids: An Overview. In: IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics . 2019.
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abstract = "Communication infrastructure (CI) in microgrids (MGs) allows for the application of different control architectures for the secondary control (SC) layer. The use of new SC architectures involving CI is motivated by the need to increase MG resilience and handle the intermittent nature of distributed generation units (DGUs). The structure of secondary control is classified into three main categories including centralized SC (CSC) with a CI, distributed SC (DISC) generally with a low data rate CI, and decentralized SC (DESC) with communication-free infrastructure. To meet the MGs operational constraints and optimize performance, control and communication must be utilized simultaneously in different control layers. In this survey, we review and classify all types of SC policies from CI based methods to communication-free policies, including: CSC, averaging based DISC, consensus-based DISC methods, containment pinning consensus, event-triggered DISC, washout filter based DESC, and state-estimation based DESC. Each structure is scrutinized from the view point of the relevant literature. Challenges such as clock drifts, cyber-security threats, and the advantage of event-triggered approaches are presented.Fully decentralized approaches based on state-estimation and observation methods are also addressed. Although these approaches eliminate the need of any CI for the voltage and frequency restoration, during black start process or other functionalities related to the tertiary layer a CI is required. Power hardware-in-the-loop (PHiL) experimental tests are carried out to compare the merits and applicability of the different SC structures.",
keywords = "Centralized control, Decentralized control, Distributed control, Communication-free control, Event-triggered control, Microgrids, Secondary control",
author = "Yousef Khayat and Qobad Shafiee and Rasool Heydari and Mobin Naderi and Tomislav Dragicevic and John Simpson-Porco and Florian D{\"o}rfler and Mohammad Fathi and Frede Blaabjerg and Guerrero, {Josep M.} and Hassan Bevrani",
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language = "English",
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On the Secondary Control Architectures of AC Microgrids: An Overview. / Khayat, Yousef; Shafiee, Qobad; Heydari, Rasool; Naderi, Mobin; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Simpson-Porco, John; Dörfler, Florian; Fathi, Mohammad; Blaabjerg, Frede; Guerrero, Josep M.; Bevrani , Hassan .

In: IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics , 11.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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AU - Khayat, Yousef

AU - Shafiee, Qobad

AU - Heydari, Rasool

AU - Naderi, Mobin

AU - Dragicevic, Tomislav

AU - Simpson-Porco, John

AU - Dörfler, Florian

AU - Fathi, Mohammad

AU - Blaabjerg, Frede

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AU - Bevrani , Hassan

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AB - Communication infrastructure (CI) in microgrids (MGs) allows for the application of different control architectures for the secondary control (SC) layer. The use of new SC architectures involving CI is motivated by the need to increase MG resilience and handle the intermittent nature of distributed generation units (DGUs). The structure of secondary control is classified into three main categories including centralized SC (CSC) with a CI, distributed SC (DISC) generally with a low data rate CI, and decentralized SC (DESC) with communication-free infrastructure. To meet the MGs operational constraints and optimize performance, control and communication must be utilized simultaneously in different control layers. In this survey, we review and classify all types of SC policies from CI based methods to communication-free policies, including: CSC, averaging based DISC, consensus-based DISC methods, containment pinning consensus, event-triggered DISC, washout filter based DESC, and state-estimation based DESC. Each structure is scrutinized from the view point of the relevant literature. Challenges such as clock drifts, cyber-security threats, and the advantage of event-triggered approaches are presented.Fully decentralized approaches based on state-estimation and observation methods are also addressed. Although these approaches eliminate the need of any CI for the voltage and frequency restoration, during black start process or other functionalities related to the tertiary layer a CI is required. Power hardware-in-the-loop (PHiL) experimental tests are carried out to compare the merits and applicability of the different SC structures.

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JO - I E E E Transactions on Power Electronics

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SN - 0885-8993

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