Optimum safety levels for breakwaters corresponding to minimum lifetime costs are identified by life cycle cost optimization simulations. Safety levels for rock and cube armored rubble mound breakwaters, berm breakwaters, breakwaters armored with single-layer complex types of armor unit, and caisson breakwaters on rock and sand seabeds are presented corresponding to serviceability limit state, repairable limit state, and ultimate limit state. Methods of probabilistic design to target safety levels and design based on application of partial safety factors are discussed. Example application of partial safety factors for design of a breakwater is presented.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering : Expanded Edition
EditorsYoung C. Kim
PublisherWorld Scientific
Publication date2018
ISBN (Print)978-981-3204-01-0
ISBN (Electronic)978-981-4543-91-0
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Section 3: Coastal and Offshore Structures


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