Over-the-Air Performance Testing of 5G New Radio User Equipment: Standardization and Challenges

Huaqiang Gao, Zhiqin Wang, Xiang Zhang, Pekka Kyosti, Ya Jing, Weimin Wang, Yongle Wu, Gert Frølund Pedersen, Wei Fan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
261 Downloads (Pure)


The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is accelerating 5G new radio (NR) global standards aimed at significant enhancement of wireless system performance for higher date rate, better energy efficiency, and higher reliability than the current 4G cellular systems. The operators, manufacturers, and test equipment vendors have worked together to develop standardized over-the-air (OTA) test methodologies for the overall performance evaluation of 5G NR devices. 3GPP is taking the lead in standardizing the OTA testing of 5G NR under fading channel conditions. In 3GPP specifications, test methods have been studied to verify the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) performance of 5G NR user equipments (UEs) in OTA mode. This article follows the 3GPP standardization work and discusses the MIMO OTA test methodologies for 5G NR UEs working at frequency range 1 (FR1) and FR2, with a focus on its new challenges and solutions compared to 4G MIMO OTA testing methods. Then the OTA throughput testing results of real 5G NRUEs are demonstrated under the standard channel models. Finally, the challenges and limitations of standard 5G MIMO OTA test solutions are also highlighted.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Communications Standards Magazine
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)71-78
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022


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