Pattern-Reconfigurable Yagi-Uda Antenna Based on Liquid Metal

Jiaxiang Hao, Jian Ren, Xiaoyu Du, Jan H. Mikkelsen, Ming Shen, Ying Zeng Yin

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)
128 Downloads (Pure)


A pattern-reconfigurable Yagi-Uda antenna based on liquid metal is presented. The antenna consists of a balun-fed active dipole and a pair of stretchable passive parasitic dipoles, which are implemented by eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn) alloy embedded in microfluidic channels. The parasitic dipoles are driven at each end by two low-cost, three-dimensional printed media rods. Afterward, spinning the rods at different angles leads to varying degrees of stretching upon the stretchable dipoles. Note the length of passive parasitic dipoles is a vital factor for antenna radiation reconfiguration. The antenna exhibits bidirectional radiation if the parasitic dipoles are equal in length. Otherwise, directional radiation toward the shorter parasitic dipole direction can be obtained. Based on the above-mentioned working principle, a pattern-reconfigurable antenna working in wireless local area network (WLAN) band is fabricated and measured. Apart from the reconfigurable capability, the proposed antenna keeps operating in the WLAN band of 2.4-2.48 GHz during the whole shape deformation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9351606
JournalI E E E Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)587 - 591
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • 3-D printing
  • Antenna measurements
  • Antenna radiation patterns
  • Antennas
  • Dipole antennas
  • Ecoflex elastomer
  • Liquids
  • Metals
  • Microfluidics
  • Yagi-Uda antenna
  • bidirectional radiation
  • directional radiation
  • liquid metal
  • microfluidic channels
  • pattern reconfigurable


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