Patterns and Variations of Marketization Compared

Andrej Christian Lindholst, Morten Balle Hansen, Ylva Noren Bretzer, Nicola Dempsey, Merethe Dotterud Leiren

Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/conference proceedingBook chapterResearchpeer-review


In this chapter we compare patterns and variations in contemporary marketization within park and road services across England, Sweden, Denmark and Norway. The comparison draws on comparable survey data and is based on statistical tests of country differences. Analytical we draw on a framework which categorizes features of internal and external marketization into pre-, core- and post-NPM models. Overall, marketization is found to diverge across all four countries while some patterns converge across different pairs of countries. England is strongly influenced by internal and external post-NPM models, Sweden is influenced to some degree by a mix of pre-, core- and post-NPM models, Denmark is strongly influenced by core-NPM models and Norway is influenced by core-NPM models in the internal marketization.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMarketization in Local Governments : Diffusion and Evolution in Scandinavia and England
EditorsAndrej Christian Lindholst, Morten Balle Hansen
Number of pages25
Place of PublicationCham
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Publication dateFeb 2020
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-32477-3, 978-3-030-32480-3
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-32478-0
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020


  • marketization
  • privatization
  • contracting out
  • comparative
  • scandinavia
  • england
  • survey
  • new public management
  • post-NPM


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