Prediction of gait kinetics using Markerless-driven musculoskeletal modeling

Zachary Ripic, Ilias Theodorakos, Michael S. Andersen, Joseph F. Signorile, Thomas M. Best, Kevin A. Jacobs, Moataz Eltoukhy*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Video-based motion analysis systems are emerging in the biomechanics research community, yet there is limited exploration of kinetics prediction using RGB-markerless kinematics and musculoskeletal modeling. This project aimed to provide ground reaction force (GRF) and ground reaction moment (GRM) predictions during over-ground gait by introducing RGB-markerless kinematics into a musculoskeletal modeling framework. Full-body markerless kinematic inputs and musculoskeletal modeling were used to obtain GRF and GRM predictions which were compared to measured force plate values. The markerless-driven predictions yielded average root mean-squared error (RMSE) in the stance phase of 0.035 ± 0.009 N∙BW−1, 0.070 ± 0.014 N∙BW−1, and 0.155 ± 0.041 N∙BW−1 in the mediolateral (ML), anteroposterior (AP), and vertical (V) GRFs. This was accompanied by moderate to high correlations and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) indicating moderate to good agreement between measured and predicted values (95% Confidence Inervals: ML = [0.479, 0.717], AP = [0.714, 0.856], V = [0.803, 0.905]). For ground reaction moments (GRM), average RMSE was 0.029 ± 0.013 Nm∙BWH-1, 0.014 ± 0.005 Nm∙BWH-1, and 0.005 ± 0.002 Nm∙BWH-1 in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes. Pearson correlations and ICCs indicated poor agreement between systems for GRMs (95% Confidence Intervals: Sagittal = [0.314, 0.608], Frontal = [0.006, 0.373], Transverse = [0.269, 0.570]). Currently, RMSE is larger than target thresholds set from studies using Kinect, inertial, or marker-based kinematic drivers; but methodological considerations highlighted in this work may help guide follow-up iterations. At this point, further use in research or clinical practice is cautioned until methodological considerations are addressed, although results are promising at this point.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111712
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023

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  • Artificial intelligence
  • Biomechanics
  • Ground reaction force prediction
  • Markerless motion capture
  • Musculoskeletal modeling


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