Primary Control by ON/OFF Demand-Side Devices

Benjamin Biegel, Lars Henrik Hansen, Palle Andersen, Jakob Stoustrup

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

51 Citations (Scopus)


We consider an aggregator managing a portfolio of ON/OFF demand-side devices. The devices are able to shift con- sumption in time within certain energy limitations; moreover, the devices are able to measure the system frequency and switch ON and OFF accordingly. We show how the aggregator can manage the portfolio of devices to collectively provide a primary reserve delivery in an unbundled liberalized electricity market setting under current regulations. Furthermore, we formulate a binary linear optimization problem that minimizes the aggregator’s cost of providing a primary reserve delivery of a given volume, and demonstrate this method on numerical examples.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)2061 - 2071
Publication statusPublished - 2013


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