Referred Sensation Areas in a Bilateral Toes Amputee

Eugen R Lontis*, Ken Yoshida, Winnie Jensen

*Corresponding author

Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/conference proceedingArticle in proceedingResearchpeer-review


Various mechanisms in generating phantom limb pain (PLP) have been hypothesized in the literature. However, there still is no clear understanding of how PLP develops and why it presents. Amputation leads to permanent anatomical and physiological changes of the neural path previously supplying the brain with sensory input, as well as to formation of referred sensation areas (RSAs) on the stump or its vicinity. Sensations may be evoked in the lost body part upon stimulation of RSAs that may be exploited as artificial sensory input. In this work, we present the analysis of RSA maps from a 45-year-old female with bilateral toes amputation. Maps of the RSAs were identified in eight sessions over 107 days, characterized by dynamics in both location and type of associated evoked sensation. The evoked sensations were reported to be felt like current through and brushing of the phantom toes at low intensities close to the sensation threshold. Sensations evoked by electrical stimuli delivered through electrodes covering one or more RSAs approximated the sensation of summation of sensations evoked by mechanical stimuli (light brushing). No painful evoked sensations were observed.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2020 42nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC)
Number of pages4
Publication dateJul 2020
ISBN (Print)978-1-7281-1991-5
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-7281-1990-8
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020
Event42nd Annual International Conferences of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2020 - Montreal, Canada
Duration: 20 Jul 202024 Jul 2020


Conference42nd Annual International Conferences of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2020
SeriesI E E E Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference Proceedings


  • Amputation
  • Amputees
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Phantom Limb
  • Sensation
  • Toes

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