Review of Small-Signal Modeling Methods Including Frequency-Coupling Dynamics of Power Converters

Xiaolong Yue, Xiongfei Wang*, Frede Blaabjerg

*Corresponding author

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)
40 Downloads (Pure)


Over the past years, the linearized modeling techniques for power converters have been continuously developed to capture the small-signal dynamics beyond half the switching frequency. This paper reviews and compares the small-signal modeling approaches based on a buck converter with voltage-mode control. The study includes the small-signal averaged modeling approach, the describing function method, and the harmonic state-space modeling approach, in order to be able to better select the correct method when modeling and analyzing a power electronic circuit as well as a power-electronic-based power system. The model comparison points out that the describing-function-based models do improve the modeling accuracy beyond the half-switching frequency of the converter, yet they fail to predict the frequency-coupling interactions (e.g., beat frequency oscillations) among multiple converters, and instead, harmonic state-space models in the multiple-input multiple-output form are required.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8410450
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)3313-3328
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2019


  • Averaged model
  • Crossed-frequency model
  • dc-dc converters
  • Describing function
  • Harmonic state space (HSS)
  • Small-signal modeling approach

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