Seismocardiography as a tool for assessment of bi-ventricular pacing

Kasper Sørensen*, Peter Søgaard, Kasper Emerek, Ask Schou Jensen, Johannes Jan Struijk, Samuel E Schmidt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Objective.Conduction-induced heart failure in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) can benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, some patients are non-responders to the therapy with one contributing factor being poor optimization of the atrioventricular (AV) pacing delay. In this study, we have investigated the pacing-induced changes in the seismocardiogram (SCG). Approach.14 patients with heart failure, LBBB, and CRT were included. SCG was recorded with pacing turned on and off. Based on a mean SCG heartbeat from each patient, fiducial points were annotated, and cardiac timing intervals (CTI) and amplitudes were derived. These were compared between the CRT group and a group of healthy normal subjects ( n= 14). Echocardiography was also used to derive CTI. Intervals derived from the SCG and echocardiogram were correlated. Main results.The isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT) derived from SCG was significantly shorter in the CRT group when the pacemaker was turned on (63.2-52.6 ms, p= 0.027). The first peak-to-peak amplitude in the systolic complex was significantly larger with the pacemaker turned on ( p= 0.002), as well as the ∣max-min∣ amplitude in the systolic complex ( p= 0.003). Isovolumetric relaxation time and left ventricular ejection time (LVET) were not significantly different between pacemaker settings. Compared to normal subjects, IVCT was significantly prolonged with the pacemaker turned off. All amplitudes were significantly larger in the healthy subject group. IVCT and LVET derived from SCG were significantly correlated to the echocardiogram. Significance.IVCT shortened and SCG amplitudes increased in response to CRT, indicating a more efficient ventricular contraction. This demonstrates the possibility to detect cardio-mechanic changes in response to treatment with the SCG. However, for the patients the systolic part of the SCG was abnormal and difficult to characterize, raising concerns about the correct interpretation of the SCG.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105007
JournalPhysiological Measurement
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 26 Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

© 2022 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.


  • Bundle-Branch Block/diagnostic imaging
  • Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy/methods
  • Electrocardiography
  • Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging
  • Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Pacemaker, Artificial
  • Treatment Outcome
  • isovolumic contraction time (IVCT)
  • left ventricular ejection time (LVET)
  • biventricular pacing
  • cardiac vibrations
  • cardiac timing intervals
  • seismocardiography (SCG)
  • left bundle branch block (LBBB)


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