28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The occurrence of close proximity infection for many respiratory diseases is often cited as evidence of large droplet and/or close contact transmission. We explored interpersonal exposure of exhaled droplets and droplet nuclei of two standing thermal manikins as affected by distance, humidity, ventilation, and breathing mode. Under the specific set of conditions studied, we found a substantial increase in airborne exposure to droplet nuclei exhaled by the source manikin when a susceptible manikin is within about 1.5 m of the source manikin, referred to as the proximity effect. The threshold distance of about 1.5 m distinguishes the two basic transmission processes of droplets and droplet nuclei, that is, short-range modes and the long-range airborne route. The short-range modes include both the conventional large droplet route and the newly defined short-range airborne transmission. We thus reveal that transmission occurring in close proximity to the source patient includes both droplet-borne (large droplet) and short-range airborne routes, in addition to the direct deposition of large droplets on other body surfaces. The mechanisms of the droplet-borne and short-range airborne routes are different; their effective control methods also differ. Neither the current droplet precautions nor dilution ventilation prevents short-range airborne transmission, so new control methods are needed.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIndoor Air Online
Volume27
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)452-462
ISSN1600-0668
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Fingerprint

Manikins
Ventilation
Humidity
Respiratory Tract Infections
Respiration
Hot Temperature
Pulmonary diseases
Contacts (fluid mechanics)
Dilution
Atmospheric humidity

Keywords

  • Building ventilation
  • Interpersonal exposure
  • Large droplet transmission
  • Respiratory infection
  • Short-range airborne route

Cite this

@article{23fca70d0b484f91ba9f2ea2bfead9c6,
title = "Short-range airborne transmission of expiratory droplets between two people",
abstract = "The occurrence of close proximity infection for many respiratory diseases is often cited as evidence of large droplet and/or close contact transmission. We explored interpersonal exposure of exhaled droplets and droplet nuclei of two standing thermal manikins as affected by distance, humidity, ventilation, and breathing mode. Under the specific set of conditions studied, we found a substantial increase in airborne exposure to droplet nuclei exhaled by the source manikin when a susceptible manikin is within about 1.5 m of the source manikin, referred to as the proximity effect. The threshold distance of about 1.5 m distinguishes the two basic transmission processes of droplets and droplet nuclei, that is, short-range modes and the long-range airborne route. The short-range modes include both the conventional large droplet route and the newly defined short-range airborne transmission. We thus reveal that transmission occurring in close proximity to the source patient includes both droplet-borne (large droplet) and short-range airborne routes, in addition to the direct deposition of large droplets on other body surfaces. The mechanisms of the droplet-borne and short-range airborne routes are different; their effective control methods also differ. Neither the current droplet precautions nor dilution ventilation prevents short-range airborne transmission, so new control methods are needed.",
keywords = "Building ventilation, Interpersonal exposure, Large droplet transmission, Respiratory infection, Short-range airborne route, Building ventilation, Interpersonal exposure, Large droplet transmission, Respiratory infection, Short-range airborne route",
author = "Li Liu and Yuguo Li and Nielsen, {Peter Vilhelm} and Jianjian Wei and Jensen, {Rasmus Lund}",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1111/ina.12314",
language = "English",
volume = "27",
pages = "452--462",
journal = "Indoor Air Online",
issn = "1600-0668",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
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}

Short-range airborne transmission of expiratory droplets between two people. / Liu, Li; Li, Yuguo; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Wei, Jianjian; Jensen, Rasmus Lund.

In: Indoor Air Online, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2017, p. 452-462.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Short-range airborne transmission of expiratory droplets between two people

AU - Liu, Li

AU - Li, Yuguo

AU - Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

AU - Wei, Jianjian

AU - Jensen, Rasmus Lund

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - The occurrence of close proximity infection for many respiratory diseases is often cited as evidence of large droplet and/or close contact transmission. We explored interpersonal exposure of exhaled droplets and droplet nuclei of two standing thermal manikins as affected by distance, humidity, ventilation, and breathing mode. Under the specific set of conditions studied, we found a substantial increase in airborne exposure to droplet nuclei exhaled by the source manikin when a susceptible manikin is within about 1.5 m of the source manikin, referred to as the proximity effect. The threshold distance of about 1.5 m distinguishes the two basic transmission processes of droplets and droplet nuclei, that is, short-range modes and the long-range airborne route. The short-range modes include both the conventional large droplet route and the newly defined short-range airborne transmission. We thus reveal that transmission occurring in close proximity to the source patient includes both droplet-borne (large droplet) and short-range airborne routes, in addition to the direct deposition of large droplets on other body surfaces. The mechanisms of the droplet-borne and short-range airborne routes are different; their effective control methods also differ. Neither the current droplet precautions nor dilution ventilation prevents short-range airborne transmission, so new control methods are needed.

AB - The occurrence of close proximity infection for many respiratory diseases is often cited as evidence of large droplet and/or close contact transmission. We explored interpersonal exposure of exhaled droplets and droplet nuclei of two standing thermal manikins as affected by distance, humidity, ventilation, and breathing mode. Under the specific set of conditions studied, we found a substantial increase in airborne exposure to droplet nuclei exhaled by the source manikin when a susceptible manikin is within about 1.5 m of the source manikin, referred to as the proximity effect. The threshold distance of about 1.5 m distinguishes the two basic transmission processes of droplets and droplet nuclei, that is, short-range modes and the long-range airborne route. The short-range modes include both the conventional large droplet route and the newly defined short-range airborne transmission. We thus reveal that transmission occurring in close proximity to the source patient includes both droplet-borne (large droplet) and short-range airborne routes, in addition to the direct deposition of large droplets on other body surfaces. The mechanisms of the droplet-borne and short-range airborne routes are different; their effective control methods also differ. Neither the current droplet precautions nor dilution ventilation prevents short-range airborne transmission, so new control methods are needed.

KW - Building ventilation

KW - Interpersonal exposure

KW - Large droplet transmission

KW - Respiratory infection

KW - Short-range airborne route

KW - Building ventilation

KW - Interpersonal exposure

KW - Large droplet transmission

KW - Respiratory infection

KW - Short-range airborne route

U2 - 10.1111/ina.12314

DO - 10.1111/ina.12314

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VL - 27

SP - 452

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JO - Indoor Air Online

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SN - 1600-0668

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