Solar PV-based scalable DC microgrid for rural electrification in developing regions

Mashood Nasir*, Hassan Abbas Khan, arif hussain, laeeq mateen, Nauman Ahmad Zaffar

*Corresponding author

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)
22 Downloads (Pure)


In this paper, the design, analysis, and implementation of a highly distributed off-grid solar photovoltaic dc microgrid architecture suitable for rural electrification in developing countries is presented. The proposed architecture is superior in comparison with existing architectures for rural electrification because of its 1) generation and storage scalability, 2) higher distribution efficiency (because of distributed generation and distributed storage for lower line losses), 3) ability to provide power for larger communal loads without the requirement for large, dedicated generation by extracting the benefit of usage diversity, and 4) localized control by using the hysteresis-based voltage droop method, thus eliminating the need for a central controller. The proposed microgrid architecture consists of several nanogrids capable of the self-sustained generation, storage, and bidirectional flow of power within the microgrid. Bidirectional power flow and distributed voltage droop control are implemented through the duty cycle control of a modified flyback converter. A detailed analysis in terms of power flow, loss, and system efficiency was conducted by using the Newton-Raphson method modified for dc power flow at varying distribution voltages, conductor sizes, and schemes of interconnection among the contributing nanogrids. A scaled-down version of the proposed architecture with various power sharing scenarios was also implemented on hardware, and yielded satisfactory results
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)390 - 399
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2018
Externally publishedYes



  • Rural electrification, Nanogrids, DC Microgrid, Droop control, DC Power Flow

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