STATCOM Impacts on Synchronous Generator LOE Protection: A Realistic Study Based on IEEE Standard C37. 102

Abbas Hasani, Farhad Haghjoo, Claus Leth Bak, Filipe Miguel Faria da Silva

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


The impacts of the static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) on the traditional loss of excitation (LOE) protection are investigated in this article. To do a comprehensive study, a common and realistic excitation system is developed for the generator by employing the phase-domain model of the synchronous generator accessible in the real-time digital simulator. Using such a model, the LOE phenomenon is realistically studied in accordance with IEEE Standard C37. 102-2016, while the generator dynamics along with the LOE relay performance are investigated through different types of partial and complete LOE events. It is shown that in the presence of STATCOM, two major impacts on the generator and its LOE protection can be expected: 1) it imposes an additional time delay on the relay to detect the LOE failures, which depends on the generator initial loading and the type of LOE failure and 2) it might lead the generator to reach a new stable operating point without experiencing a loss of synchronism condition, during an improper changeover from automatic voltage regulator to manual voltage regulator operating mode. The related consequences for both of the impacts are discussed in this article, and some solutions are suggested to deal with the probable negative aspects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9285192
JournalI E E E Transactions on Industry Applications
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)1255-1264
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Generator modeling
  • generator protection
  • loss of excitation (LOE) detection
  • synchronous compensator (STATCOM)


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