State-of-Charge Balance Using Adaptive Droop Control for Distributed Energy Storage Systems in DC MicroGrid Applications

Xiaonan Lu, Kai Sun, Josep M. Guerrero, Juan Carlos Vasquez, Lipei Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

466 Citations (Scopus)
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This paper presents the coordinated control of distributed energy storage systems (DESSs) in DC micro-grids. In order to balance the state-of-charge (SoC) of each energy storage unit (ESU), an SoC-based adaptive droop control
method is proposed. In this decentralized control method, the droop coefficient is inversely proportional to the nth order of SoC. By using SoC-based droop method, the ESUs with higher SoC deliver more power, while the ones with lower SoC deliver less power. Therefore, the energy stored in the ESU with higher SoC decreases faster than that with lower SoC. The SoC difference between each ESU gradually becomes smaller and finally the load power is equally shared between the distributed ESUs. Meanwhile, the load sharing speed can be adjusted by changing the exponent of SoC in the adaptive droop control. The model of SoC-based adaptive droop control system is established and the system stability is thereby analyzed by using this model. Simulation and experimental results from a 2×2.2 kW parallel converter system are presented in order to validate the proposed approach.
Original languageEnglish
JournalI E E E Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)2804-2815
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2014


  • Droop control
  • Distributed energy storage system (DESS)
  • DC micro-grids
  • State-of-charge (SoC)

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