Test Reduction for Power Density Emitted by Handset mmWave Antenna Arrays

Stanislav Stefanov Zhekov, Kun Zhao, Ondrej Franek, Shuai Zhang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
44 Downloads (Pure)


The exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) from
phased antenna arrays integrated into wireless devices operating
at the millimeter-wave (mmWave) part of the spectrum should be
evaluated in terms of power density (PD). Two aspects related
to test reduction when evaluating the radiation from handset
antenna arrays are considered. First, the peak PD decay with the
distance from 4-elements antenna arrays is analyzed. The focus
is on finding the size of the volume around the handset beyond
which the PD is so low that its measurement can be omitted. By
limiting the measurements to the inside of the exposed volume,
the total test time is reduced. Antenna configurations that are
representative for current trends in handset technology are chosen:
arrays of half-wavelength dipoles and patches operating at
26 GHz, 28 GHz, and 39 GHz, and having inter-element spacing
either 0.5λ or 0.9λ. The second investigation aims to determine
the critical distance between two 4-elements phased arrays for
which the peak PD when the two arrays operate simultaneously
is similar to the peak PD when only one array operates at the
time. The study shows the configurations for which the number
of tests can be reduced while having sufficiently accurate results.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9337880
JournalIEEE Access
Pages (from-to)23127-23138
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Antenna array
  • Antenna arrays
  • Antenna measurements
  • Density measurement
  • Dipole antennas
  • Phased arrays
  • Power system measurements
  • Telephone sets
  • decoupling
  • dipole
  • exposed volume
  • handset
  • mmWave
  • patch
  • power density
  • test reduction


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