The Effect of n-3 Fatty Acids on Small Dense Low-Density Lipoproteins in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Intervention Study

Gustav V B Sørensen, My Svensson, Charlotte Strandhave, Erik B Schmidt, Kaj A Jørgensen, Jeppe H Christensen

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) particles are particularly atherogenic. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may have a beneficial effect on numbers of sdLDL particles, and the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA on plasma levels of sdLDL in patients with ESRD.

METHODS: ESRD patients with cardiovascular disease (n = 161) on chronic hemodialysis were randomized to treatment with 1.7 g of n-3 PUFA (n = 81) or 2 g of placebo (olive oil; n = 80) for 3 months. The study was double-blinded. Densities of LDL and percentages of sdLDL (sdLDL%) of total LDL were measured before and after intervention. On the basis of sdLDL%, patients were classified as having lipid pattern A, I (intermediate), or B defined by a successive increase in sdLDL concentration and decrease in lipid particle size.

RESULTS: n-3 PUFAs significantly reduced triglycerides. However, LDL cholesterol remained unchanged. In the n-3 group, the LDL density did not change significantly during follow-up. Similarly, the LDL density remained unchanged in the placebo group. In the n-3 group, the sdLDL% was 34% at baseline and unchanged at follow-up. At baseline 71% had LDL pattern A, 9% had pattern I, and 20% had pattern B, and none of these patterns were significantly changed by n-3 PUFA supplementation.

CONCLUSION: Dietary supplementation with 1.7 g of n-3 PUFA had no effect on LDL density or sdLDL levels in patients with ESRD.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Renal Nutrition
Volume25
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)376-380
ISSN1051-2276
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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