Thermal bridges of modern windows: experience with minimum acceptable surface temperature

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With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience with the minimum acceptable surface temperature regarding surface condensation or mold growth, implemented in the Danish Building Regulations in 2010, and the calculation method for this temperature based on international standards is
discussed. The introduction of the minimum acceptable surface temperature has been an important driver for the development of new window solutions in Denmark, increasing the inner-surface temperature at the sealing of window panes. However, it will not stop complaints fromconsumers, as this temperature is calculated under standardized conditions. Increasing requirements for airtightness increases the importance of sufficient ventilation in order to prevent problems with condensation or mold growth.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings XII, Clearwater Beach, Florida, Dec 2013 : Conference Proceedings
Number of pages13
Place of PublicationClearwater, Florida
PublisherAmerican Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
Publication dateDec 2013
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-936504-61-9
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2013
EventBuildings XII: Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings - Sheraton Sand Key Resort, Clearwater Beach, Florida, United States
Duration: 1 Dec 20135 Dec 2013
Conference number: 12


ConferenceBuildings XII
LocationSheraton Sand Key Resort
CountryUnited States
CityClearwater Beach, Florida

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