Three Wind Farm Developments, Three Different Planning Difficulties: Cases from Denmark

Kristian Borch*, Julia Kirch Kirkegaard, Sophie Nyborg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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The aim of this paper is to provide a new perspective on the conditions for the multiple dimensions of concerns and to understand why some wind power projects run smoothly, while others lead to unexpected outcomes due to local resistance. The paper considers three Danish wind farm developments with different planning difficulties, from “smooth” to intensified resistance and conflicts between local communities and the planning authority. To better understand the different planning pathways, we use a research framework where social acceptance is viewed from a conflict management theory perspective, with a focus on the uniqueness and different dimensions of conflicts. The paper discusses how the framing of the planning system considers specific types of tangible concerns, while more intangible concerns are neglected, and how this leads to escalating conflicts. The paper is concluded with several policy recommendations on how to avoid conflicts and how authorities and politicians should reflect on their own agency in provoking conflicts, which can be avoided by proactively involving affected communities at early stages.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4662
Issue number16
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • agency
  • community concern
  • conflict management
  • green transition
  • overflowing
  • public participation
  • wind energy planning


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