Time for Using Machine Learning for Dose Guidance in Titration of People With Type 2 Diabetes? A Systematic Review of Basal Insulin Dose Guidance

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BACKGROUND: Real-world studies of people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have shown insufficient dose adjustment during basal insulin titration in clinical practice leading to suboptimal treatment. Thus, 60% of people with T2D treated with insulin do not reach glycemic targets. This emphasizes a need for methods supporting efficient and individualized basal insulin titration of people with T2D. However, no systematic review of basal insulin dose guidance for people with T2D has been found.

OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of basal insulin dose guidance methods that support titration of people with T2D and categorize these methods by characteristics, effect, and user experience.

METHODS: The review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies about basal insulin dose guidance, including adults with T2D on basal insulin analogs published before September 7, 2022, were included. Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklists were applied to assess risk of bias.

RESULTS: In total, 35 studies were included, and three categories of dose guidance were identified: paper-based titration algorithms, telehealth solutions, and mathematical models. Heterogeneous reporting of glycemic outcomes challenged comparison of effect between the three categories. Few studies assessed user experience.

CONCLUSIONS: Studies mainly used titration algorithms to titrate basal insulin as telehealth or in paper format, except for studies using mathematical models. A numerically larger proportion of participants seemed to reach target using telehealth solutions compared to paper-based titration algorithms. Exploring capabilities of machine learning may provide insights that could pioneer future research while focusing on holistic development.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 23 Dec 2022


  • basal insulin
  • dose guidance
  • glycemic control
  • insulin titration
  • systematic review
  • type 2 diabetes
  • Digital health


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