Transient Stability of Voltage-Source Converters With Grid-Forming Control: A Design-Oriented Study

Donghua Pan, Xiongfei Wang, Fangcheng Liu, Rongliang Shi

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6 Citations (Scopus)
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Driven by the large-scale integration of distributed power resources, grid-connected voltage-source converters (VSCs) are increasingly required to operate as grid-forming units to regulate the system voltage/frequency and emulate the inertia. While various grid-forming control schemes have been reported, their transient behaviors under large-signal disturbances are still not fully explored. This article addresses this issue by presenting a design-oriented transient stability analysis of the grid-forming VSCs. First, four typical grid-forming control schemes, namely, the power-synchronization control (PSC), the basic droop control, the droop control with low-pass filters (LPFs), and the virtual synchronous generator (VSG) control, are systematically reviewed, whose dynamics are characterized by a general large-signal model. Based on this model, a comparative analysis on the transient stabilities of different control schemes is then carried out. It reveals that the PSC and the basic droop control can retain a stable operation as long as there are equilibrium points, due to their noninertial transient responses, while the droop control with LPFs and the VSG control can be destabilized even if the equilibrium points exist, due to the lack of damping on their inertial transient responses. With the phase portrait, the underlying stability mechanism is explicitly elaborated, and the quantitative impacts of the controller gains and the virtual inertia are clearly identified. Subsequently, controller design guidelines are proposed to enhance the system damping as well as the transient stability. Finally, experimental results are provided to verify the theoretical analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8863360
JournalIEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)1019-1033
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020


  • Grid-forming control
  • large-signal disturbance
  • transient stability
  • virtual inertia
  • voltage-source converters~(VSCs)

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