Treatment of wastewater solutions from anodizing industry by membrane distillation and membrane crystallization

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The treatment of wastewater containing various metal ions is a challenging issue in the anodizing industry. The current study investigates the application of membrane distillation/crystallization (MD/MCr) for the simultaneous recovery of freshwater and sodium sulfate from wastewater originating from a Danish anodizing industry. MD/MCr experiments were performed on supernatant from wastewater obtained after centrifugation. The effect of various feed temperatures and cross-flow velocities on flux and crystal characteristics was investigated. The crystal growth in the feed tank was monitored through the use of an online PaticleView microscope. The crystals' morphology and form were determined by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), respectively, while inductively coupled plasma (ICP) was applied to determine the purity of the obtained crystals. The weight and dimensions of the MD/MCr unit that were required to treat the specific amount of wastewater were evaluated as a function of the feed inlet temperature. It was demonstrated that the application of MCr allows extracting high-purity sodium sulfate crystals and more than 80% freshwater from the wastewater.

Original languageEnglish
Article number287
JournalApplied Sciences
Issue number2
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Anodizing industry
  • Membrane crystallization
  • Membrane distillation
  • Mineral recovery
  • Sodium sulphate


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