Uncertainty Analysis of Fluorescence-Based Oil-In-Water Monitors for Oil and Gas Produced Water

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Offshore oil and gas facilities are currently measuring the oil-in-water (OiW) concentration in the produced water manually before discharging it into the ocean, which in most cases fulfills the government regulations. However, as stricter regulations and environmental concerns are increasing over time, the importance of measuring OiW in real-time intensifies. The significant amount of uncertainties associated with manual samplings, that is currently not taken into consideration, could potentially affect the acceptance of OiW monitors and lower the reputation of all online OiW measurement techniques. This work presents the performance of four fluorescence-based monitors on an in-house testing facility. Previous studies of a fluorescence-based monitor have raised concerns about the measurement of OiW concentration being flow-dependent. The proposed results show that the measurements from the fluorescence-based monitors are not or insignificantly flow-dependent. However, other parameters, such as gas bubbles and droplet sizes, do affect the measurement. Testing the monitors' calibration method revealed that the weighted least square is preferred to achieve high reproducibility. Due to the high sensitivity to different compositions of atomic structures, other than aromatic hydrocarbons, the fluorescence-based monitor might not be feasible for measuring OiW concentrations in dynamic separation facilities with consistent changes. Nevertheless, they are still of interest for measuring the separation efficiency of a deoiling hydrocyclone to enhance its deoiling performance, as the separation efficiency is not dependent on OiW trueness but rather the OiW concentration before and after the hydrocyclone.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4435
Issue number16
Pages (from-to)1-37
Number of pages37
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2020


  • OLS
  • WLS
  • fluorescence-based monitor
  • interferences
  • oil and gas industry
  • oil-in-water concentration
  • produced water
  • real-time measurements
  • reproducibility
  • uncertainties


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