Virtual-Impedance-Based Control for Voltage-Source and Current-Source Converters

Xiongfei Wang, YunWei Li, Frede Blaabjerg, Poh Chiang Loh

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

288 Citations (Scopus)
100 Downloads (Pure)


The virtual impedance concept is increasingly used for the control of power electronic systems. Generally, the virtual impedance loop can either be embedded as an additional degree of freedom for active stabilization and disturbance rejection, or be employed as a command reference generator for the converters to provide ancillary services. This paper presents an overview of the virtual-impedance-based control strategies for voltage-source and current-source converters. The control output impedance shaping attained by the virtual impedances is generalized first using the impedance-based models. Different virtual impedances and their implementation issues are then discussed. A number of practical examples are demonstrated to illustrate the feasibility of virtual impedances. Emerging applications and future trends of virtual impedances in power electronic systems conclude this paper.
Original languageEnglish
JournalI E E E Transactions on Power Electronics
Issue number12
Pages (from-to)7019 - 7037
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2015


  • Virtual impedance
  • Voltage-source converter
  • Current-source converter
  • Active stabilization
  • Fault ride-through
  • Power flow control
  • Harmonic/unbalance compensation

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