Why are we still queuing? Exploring landside congestion factors in Australian bulk cargo port terminals

Mihai Neagoe*, Hans-Henrik Hvolby, Mohammad Sadegh Taskhiri, Paul Turner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
9 Downloads (Pure)


This empirical research improves the understanding of landside congestion factors in bulk cargo port terminals. It presents a model for identifying factors and interactions contributing to congestion severity.
Ports play critical roles at the intersection of multiple independent supply chains and have an enormous potential to improve supply chains' competitiveness. However, this point of intersection for supply chains also creates significant coordination challenges best exemplified by the persistence of landside congestion. Although landside congestion is an issue that plagues many ports and terminals, research on congestion remains limited, especially in bulk cargo port terminals. This lack of research into landside congestion may also partially explain the dominance of market-based mechanisms for managing congestion. Importantly, these market-based approaches often fail or shift congestion to other parts of the supply chain because they are not aligned with the causal factors and their interactions that contribute to congestion.
This paper analyses three case studies. Each case centres on an Australian bulk cargo port terminal for forest products and its associated landside supply chain. The research findings identify social, technical and behavioural factors and their different types of interactions at the terminal and related supply chains to reveal how they contribute to the appearance and severity of landside congestion. Based on these findings, the paper presents a new definition of landside congestion and a model for identifying and understanding interactions among congestion factors. Improved knowledge of landside congestion can refine congestion management through contextually tailored solutions depending on the factors’ presence and interactions.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100036
JournalMaritime Transport Research
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021

Cite this