Witness-based Approach for Scaling Distributed Ledgers to Massive IoT Scenarios

Lam Duc Nguyen*, Israel Leyva-Mayorga, Petar Popovski

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/conference proceedingArticle in proceedingResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
34 Downloads (Pure)


Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLTs) are playing a major role in building security and trust in Internet of Things (IoT) systems. However, IoT deployments with a large number of devices, such as in environment monitoring applications, generate and send massive amounts of data. This would generate vast number of transactions that must be processed within the distributed ledger. In this work, we first demonstrate that the Proof of Work (PoW) blockchain fails to scale in a sizable IoT connectivity infrastructure. To solve this problem, we present a lightweight distributed ledger scheme to integrate PoW blockchain into IoT. In our scheme, we classify transactions into two types: 1) global transactions, which must be processed by global blockchain nodes and 2) local transactions, which can be processed locally by entities called witnesses. Performance evaluation demonstrates that our proposed scheme improves the scalability of integrated blockchain and IoT monitoring systems by processing a fraction of the transactions, inversely proportional to the number of witnesses, locally. Hence, reducing the number of global transactions.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2020 IEEE 6th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT)
Number of pages6
Publication date13 Oct 2020
Article number9221269
ISBN (Print)978-1-7281-5504-3
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-7281-5503-6
Publication statusPublished - 13 Oct 2020
Event2020 IEEE 6th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT) - New Oreleans, United States
Duration: 2 Jun 202016 Jun 2020


Conference2020 IEEE 6th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT)
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityNew Oreleans


  • Blockchain
  • Distributed Ledgers
  • Environment Monitoring
  • IoT
  • Witness
  • scalability


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