Convergent and discriminant validity of the Minimal Eating Observation Form – version II: a cross-sectional study

  • Albert Westergren (Creator)
  • David Smithard (Creator)
  • Mark Westergaard (Creator)
  • Anne Norup (Creator)
  • Johannes Riis (Creator)
  • Anne Petas Swane Krarup (Creator)
  • Line Elise Møller Hansen (Creator)
  • Christina Emborg (Creator)
  • Dorte Melgaard (Creator)



Abstract Background The Minimal Eating Observation Form – Version II (MEOF-II) is a brief and easy to use screening tool for eating difficulties, that is psychometrically robust. The aim of this study was to explore convergent (measuring similar constructs) and discriminant (measuring somewhat different constructs) validity of the MEOF-II to other validated dysphagia specific, activity and participation related instruments. Methods In this cross-sectional study, participants (n = 100, mean age 72, n = 42 women), diagnosed with either chronic pulmonary disease, Parkinson´s disease, Multiple Sclerosis, or stroke were recruited from rehabilitation centres. Patient-reported outcomes and clinical-rated assessments, capturing eating ability in general and swallowing in specific, included: The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI), the 4-question test (4QT), the Minimal Eating Observation Form – II, the Volume – Viscosity Swallow Test (V-VST), Flexible Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES) documented according to the Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS). Type of oral intake was documented using the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS). Activities in daily living was assessed with Barthel index (BI). Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to analyze associations. The MEOF-II total score was hypothesised to have moderate correlations (r ≥ 0.3) with the other assessments, besides with PAS and FOIS (weak correlations, r 
Date made available2024

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