Understanding Chinese nationalism and national identity is of primary importance in comprehending the increasingly assertive role that a rising China plays on the global political scene. But “Chinese nationalism” is a very difficult concept to deal with due to differences in the Western and Chinese understandings of the term. This article attempts to bridge the gap by analyzing both Chinese and Western conceptualizations of the term and discussing the difference between patriotism and nationalism and their interchange in China today. The importance of nationalism/patriotism in shaping modern Chinese society is also recognized by the Chinese state, that deliberately fosters patriotic sentiment among the young generation through the Patriotic Education Campaign. Material from this campaign is used to provide an important indication of the patriotic content of current Chinese state nationalism.