The crowdedness of current cellular bands and the demand for higher transmission speed prompt the use of the millimeter-wave spectrum for the next-generation mobile communication. In the millimeter-wave frequencies, the dosimetric quantity for human exposure to electromagnetic fields changes from the specific absorption rate to incident power density. In this paper, we used 28-GHz beam-steering patch arrays, a dipole antenna, and plane waves to investigate the temperature elevation in a multi-layer model of human head and its correlation with power density metrics. The power density averaged over one square-centimeter in free space and the peak temperature elevation in tissue at 28 GHz have good correlation. The peak temperature elevation indicated by the power density averaged one square-centimeter also agrees well with the peak temperature elevation induced by the plane waves. The results show that the averaging area of a few square-centimeters may be a good candidate for the spatial-Average power density. The findings provide valuable input to the ongoing revision and updating of relevant safety standards and guidelines.
|Status||Udgivet - 20 nov. 2017|
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© 2013 IEEE.