Does the Initial Guess Affect the Estimations of Knee Ligaments Properties via Optimization Procedures?

Ilias Theodorakos*, Mickael Skipper Andersen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/conference proceedingArticle in proceedingResearchpeer-review


Optimization combined with experimental measurements and musculoskeletal modelling are used to estimate subject-specific ligament properties and literature values are often used for the initial guess in the process. Whether these literature values, obtained from tensile tests on cadaver specimens, affect the ligament properties estimations remains unknown. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether the initial guess affects the estimations of knee ligament properties. An experimental data set, including subject-specific anatomy, laxity tests and ligament stiffness values was obtained from one cadaver. Then, a subject specific knee computational model was developed and combined with the laxity tests provided ligament properties estimations via an optimization procedure. Two different initial guesses were used. The first one comprised of generic literature values while the second one included experimentally obtained stiffnesses. The optimization procedures with the two different initial guesses resulted in two sets of ligament properties that were different by 1.9 (1.6) kN and 2.9 (2.7)% in average for the stiffnesses and references strains. However, these sets provided models with similar laxity behavior. This is an alarming finding, and it should be investigated how such different ligament properties influence decisions and/or designs of interventions. Moreover, future research should explore experimental and computational methodologies to overcome this challenge.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Digital Human Modeling : Proceedings of the 8th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium, 4-6 September 2023, Antwerp, Belgium
EditorsSofia Scataglini, Wim Saeys, Steven Truijen, Gregor Harih
Number of pages10
Publication date2023
ISBN (Print)978-3-031-37850-8
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-031-37848-5
Publication statusPublished - 2023
EventProceedings of the 8th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium - Antwerp, Belgium
Duration: 4 Sept 20236 Sept 2023


ConferenceProceedings of the 8th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium
SeriesLecture Notes in Networks and Systems
Volume744 LNNS

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.


  • Knee joint
  • laxity
  • ligament properties
  • musculoskeletal modelling
  • optimization


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