Stability and Sensitivity Analysis of Multi-Vendor, Multi-Terminal HVDC Systems

Yicheng Liao, Heng Wu, Xiongfei Wang, Mario Ndreko, Robert Dimitrovski, Wilhelm Winter

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Multi-terminal HVDC projects are increasingly developed in recent years to enhance the flexibility of energy transmission. Differing from the point-to-point HVDC systems, it is more challenging to design the multi-terminal HVDC system and ensure stable interoperability among converter systems, especially when the converters are manufactured from different vendors. Although impedance-based stability analysis allows for analyzing such systems based on black-box models, it is still difficult to utilize those black-box models to identify the root cause of potential instability. To tackle this challenge, this paper proposes a multi-level sensitivity analysis approach using frequency-domain sensitivity functions based on the impedance-based stability criterion. The proposed method differs from the classical sensitivity analysis based on state-space or transfer-function models, as it is purely based on black-box impedance models. Case studies on a four-terminal HVDC system are carried out for stability and sensitivity analysis based on the impedance measurement in PSCAD, through which the most sensitive HVDC station can be identified. The proposed theory and the analyzed results are finally validated by electromagnetic transient simulations.<fn

Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Open Journal of Power Electronics
Pages (from-to)52-66
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Admittance
  • Analytical models
  • HVDC transmission
  • Impedance
  • Impedance stability
  • Power system stability
  • Sensitivity analysis
  • Stability criteria
  • black-box system
  • frequency-domain analysis
  • multi-terminal HVDC system
  • sensitivity analysis


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