TY - JOUR

T1 - Cost- and Energy-Efficient Aerial Communication Networks with Interleaved Hovering and Flying

AU - Babu, Nithin

AU - Virgili, Marco

AU - Papadia, Constantinos

AU - Popovski, Petar

AU - Forsyth, Andrew

PY - 2021/9

Y1 - 2021/9

N2 - This work proposes a methodology for the energy-and cost-efficient 3-D deployment of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based aerial access point (AAP), that exchanges a given amount of independent data with a set of ground user equipment (UE). Considering a fly-hover-communicate transmission scheme, the most energy-efficient 3-D hovering points (HPs) of the AAP are determined by decoupling the problem in the horizontal and vertical dimensions. First, we derive analytically the optimal hovering altitude that jointly maximizes the downlink and uplink global energy efficiency (GEE) of the system. Next, we propose the multilevel circle packing (MCP) algorithm to determine the minimal number of HPs and their associated horizontal coordinates, such that the AAP covers all the UEs in the given geographical area. A cost analysis is carried out to observe the variation of both fixed and variable costs; these are then minimized by suitably selecting the AAP's battery parameters, like the depth of discharge (DOD), defined as the portion of battery capacity that is consumed during a discharge cycle, and the velocity of the UAV. Simulation results show that: the UAV energy consumption has a significant impact on the 3-D HPs of the AAP; the time spent during the substitution swap of an out of power AAP has a major influence on the operational cost; the cost of the system can be optimized by suitably selecting the onboard battery and the UAV flight parameters.

AB - This work proposes a methodology for the energy-and cost-efficient 3-D deployment of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based aerial access point (AAP), that exchanges a given amount of independent data with a set of ground user equipment (UE). Considering a fly-hover-communicate transmission scheme, the most energy-efficient 3-D hovering points (HPs) of the AAP are determined by decoupling the problem in the horizontal and vertical dimensions. First, we derive analytically the optimal hovering altitude that jointly maximizes the downlink and uplink global energy efficiency (GEE) of the system. Next, we propose the multilevel circle packing (MCP) algorithm to determine the minimal number of HPs and their associated horizontal coordinates, such that the AAP covers all the UEs in the given geographical area. A cost analysis is carried out to observe the variation of both fixed and variable costs; these are then minimized by suitably selecting the AAP's battery parameters, like the depth of discharge (DOD), defined as the portion of battery capacity that is consumed during a discharge cycle, and the velocity of the UAV. Simulation results show that: the UAV energy consumption has a significant impact on the 3-D HPs of the AAP; the time spent during the substitution swap of an out of power AAP has a major influence on the operational cost; the cost of the system can be optimized by suitably selecting the onboard battery and the UAV flight parameters.

KW - 3-D placement optimization

KW - Batteries

KW - Communication networks

KW - Discharges (electric)

KW - Downlink

KW - UAV communication

KW - US Department of Defense

KW - Unmanned aerial vehicles

KW - Uplink

KW - cost-optimization

KW - energy-efficiency

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85112597511&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1109/TVT.2021.3100255

DO - 10.1109/TVT.2021.3100255

M3 - Journal article

VL - 70

SP - 9077

EP - 9087

JO - I E E E Transactions on Vehicular Technology

JF - I E E E Transactions on Vehicular Technology

SN - 0018-9545

IS - 9

ER -