Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive form of brain tumor with a very poor prognosis. Heterogeneous in nature, the tumors characteristically grow by infiltrating the surrounding brain tissue and relapse is inevitable. The poor prognosis of GBM justifies the search to identify novel candidates for prognostic markers and therapeutic targeting. The pool of known embryonic and stem cell markers provide a resource of potential targets to investigate. Exploring the re-emergence of the embryonic marker Teratocarcinoma-Derived Growth Factor (TDGF-1) also known as Cripto-1 (CR-1) in GBM tissue and blood has provided further insight into the regulatory mechanisms governing GBM pathology. In GBM patients, high CR-1 protein levels in blood plasma significantly correlate with a shorter overall survival and survival per-se is linked to high CR-1 levels in tissue of younger patients. CR-1 expression is localized to different areas of tumor tissue, i.e., in the malignant cells in zones of proliferation, in the vicinity of endothelial cells, microvasculature and in some areas co-localization with the stem cell marker SOX-2. With these new findings, CR-1 could be a prognostic biomarker forGBMin tissue and blood with the potential of being a therapeutic target. Here, we provide an update on the expression of CR-1 in GBM and reflect on the future perspectives of these discoveries.
|Titel||The Stem Cell Microenvironment and Its Role in Regenerative Medicine and Cancer Pathogenesis|
|Publikationsdato||1 feb. 2017|
|Status||Udgivet - 1 feb. 2017|