Expertise prompts initial faster processing followed by increased short-term memory

Jonas Olsen Dall, Katsumi Watanabe, Thomas Alrik Sørensen

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftKonferenceabstrakt i tidsskriftForskningpeer review

Resumé

Attention is a process of prioritising cognitive recourses to task-relevant stimulus. A number of studies have demonstrated various processing limitations in attention; for example, visual short-term memory (VSTM) only retains a limited number of objects (Sperling, 1960). An increasing number of studies exploit formal models like Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990) to investigate the modulation of attentional parameters in more specific detail (e.g. in synaesthesia; see Ásgeirsson, Nordfang & Sørensen, 2015).Previous studies (e.g. Chen, Eng & Jiang, 2006) have argued that capacity limitations are surprisingly robust and resilient to training and expertise. This notion has been challenged by recent studies on the noticeable influence of expertise on VSTM (Sørensen & Kyllingsbæk, 2012; Dall et all, 2016).The current study extends the results reported by Dall et al. (2016) on the influence of expertise on VSTM, into attention by analysing the processing speed and the threshold of visual attention as well as VSTM. The experiment was comprised by three conditions: two control conditions (line drawings and Latin letters) and a critical condition (Japanese hiragana). Three groups with varying degrees of expertise in Japanese reading participated: Danish students (novice), Danish students studying Japanese (trained), and Japanese students (expert).The results showed that while expertise enhanced VSTM only for the expert group, replicating our previous study (Dall et al., 2016), it did not affect the threshold for visual attention. Furthermore, the processing speed was significantly slower for the novice group, leaving the other two (trained and expert) groups about the same. The present results suggest that, while the processing speed is affected by expertise, the effects reach an asymptote long before changes in VSTM.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer875
TidsskriftJournal of Vision
Vol/bind17
Udgave nummer10
ISSN1534-7362
StatusUdgivet - 4 sep. 2017
BegivenhedAnnual Meeting of the Visual Science Society - Tradewinds Island Resorts, St. Pete Beach, USA
Varighed: 19 maj 201724 maj 2017
Konferencens nummer: 17
http://www.visionsciences.org/

Konference

KonferenceAnnual Meeting of the Visual Science Society
Nummer17
LokationTradewinds Island Resorts
LandUSA
BySt. Pete Beach
Periode19/05/201724/05/2017
Internetadresse

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Expertise prompts initial faster processing followed by increased short-term memory. / Dall, Jonas Olsen; Watanabe, Katsumi; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik.

I: Journal of Vision, Bind 17, Nr. 10, 875, 04.09.2017.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftKonferenceabstrakt i tidsskriftForskningpeer review

TY - ABST

T1 - Expertise prompts initial faster processing followed by increased short-term memory

AU - Dall, Jonas Olsen

AU - Watanabe, Katsumi

AU - Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

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N2 - Attention is a process of prioritising cognitive recourses to task-relevant stimulus. A number of studies have demonstrated various processing limitations in attention; for example, visual short-term memory (VSTM) only retains a limited number of objects (Sperling, 1960). An increasing number of studies exploit formal models like Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990) to investigate the modulation of attentional parameters in more specific detail (e.g. in synaesthesia; see Ásgeirsson, Nordfang & Sørensen, 2015).Previous studies (e.g. Chen, Eng & Jiang, 2006) have argued that capacity limitations are surprisingly robust and resilient to training and expertise. This notion has been challenged by recent studies on the noticeable influence of expertise on VSTM (Sørensen & Kyllingsbæk, 2012; Dall et all, 2016).The current study extends the results reported by Dall et al. (2016) on the influence of expertise on VSTM, into attention by analysing the processing speed and the threshold of visual attention as well as VSTM. The experiment was comprised by three conditions: two control conditions (line drawings and Latin letters) and a critical condition (Japanese hiragana). Three groups with varying degrees of expertise in Japanese reading participated: Danish students (novice), Danish students studying Japanese (trained), and Japanese students (expert).The results showed that while expertise enhanced VSTM only for the expert group, replicating our previous study (Dall et al., 2016), it did not affect the threshold for visual attention. Furthermore, the processing speed was significantly slower for the novice group, leaving the other two (trained and expert) groups about the same. The present results suggest that, while the processing speed is affected by expertise, the effects reach an asymptote long before changes in VSTM.

AB - Attention is a process of prioritising cognitive recourses to task-relevant stimulus. A number of studies have demonstrated various processing limitations in attention; for example, visual short-term memory (VSTM) only retains a limited number of objects (Sperling, 1960). An increasing number of studies exploit formal models like Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990) to investigate the modulation of attentional parameters in more specific detail (e.g. in synaesthesia; see Ásgeirsson, Nordfang & Sørensen, 2015).Previous studies (e.g. Chen, Eng & Jiang, 2006) have argued that capacity limitations are surprisingly robust and resilient to training and expertise. This notion has been challenged by recent studies on the noticeable influence of expertise on VSTM (Sørensen & Kyllingsbæk, 2012; Dall et all, 2016).The current study extends the results reported by Dall et al. (2016) on the influence of expertise on VSTM, into attention by analysing the processing speed and the threshold of visual attention as well as VSTM. The experiment was comprised by three conditions: two control conditions (line drawings and Latin letters) and a critical condition (Japanese hiragana). Three groups with varying degrees of expertise in Japanese reading participated: Danish students (novice), Danish students studying Japanese (trained), and Japanese students (expert).The results showed that while expertise enhanced VSTM only for the expert group, replicating our previous study (Dall et al., 2016), it did not affect the threshold for visual attention. Furthermore, the processing speed was significantly slower for the novice group, leaving the other two (trained and expert) groups about the same. The present results suggest that, while the processing speed is affected by expertise, the effects reach an asymptote long before changes in VSTM.

M3 - Conference abstract in journal

VL - 17

JO - Journal of Vision

JF - Journal of Vision

SN - 1534-7362

IS - 10

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ER -