Corrosion study of implanted TiN electrodes using excessive electrical stimulation in minipigs

Suzan Meijs*, Kristian Rechendorff, Søren Sørensen, Nico J.M. Rijkhoff


Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

1 Citationer (Scopus)
46 Downloads (Pure)


(1) Background: Titanium nitride (TiN) electrodes have been used for implantable stimulation and sensing electrodes for decades. Nevertheless, there still is a discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo determined safe charge injection limits. This study investigated the consequences of pulsing implanted electrodes beyond the in vivo safe charge injection limits. (2) Methods: The electrodes were implanted for a month and then pulsed at 20 mA and 50 mA and 200 Hz and 400 Hz. Afterwards, the electrodes were investigated using electrochemical and analytical methods to evaluate whether electrode degradation had occurred. (3) Results: Electrochemical tests showed that electrodes that pulsed at 20 mA and 200 Hz (lowest electrical dose) had a significantly lower charge injection capacity and higher impedance than the other used and unused electrodes. (4) Conclusions: The electrodes pulsed at the lowest electrical dose, for which no tissue damage was found, appeared to have degraded. Electrodes pulsed at higher electrical doses for which tissue damage did occur, on the other hand, show no significant degradation in electrochemical tests compared to unused implanted and not implanted electrodes. It is thus clear that the tissue surrounding the electrode has an influence on the charge injection properties of the electrodes and vice versa.

Udgave nummer4
StatusUdgivet - 1 apr. 2019


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