Improving The Accuracy Of Bluetooth Based Travel Time Estimation Using Low-Level Sensor Data

Bahar Namaki Araghi, Lars Tørholm Christensen , Rajesh Krishnan , Jonas Hammershøj Olesen, Harry Lahrmann

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftKonferenceartikel i tidsskriftForskningpeer review

Resumé

Bluetooth sensors have a large detection zone compared to other static Vehicle Re-Identification Systems (VRIS). Although a larger detection zone increases the probability of detecting a Bluetooth-enabled device in a fast-moving vehicle, it increases the probability of multiple detection events triggered by a single device. This could lead to location ambiguity and reduced accuracy of travel time estimation. Therefore, the accuracy of travel time estimations by Bluetooth Technology (BT) depends upon how location ambiguity is handled by the estimation method. The issue of multiple detection events in the context of travel time estimation by BT has been considered by various researchers. However, treatment of this issue has remained simplistic so far. Most previous studies simply used the first detection event (Enter-Enter) as the best estimate. No systematic analysis for exploring the most accurate method of estimating travel time using multiple detection events has been conducted. In this study different aspects of BT detection zone, including size and its impact on the accuracy of travel time estimation, are discussed. Moreover, four alternative methods are applied; namely, Enter-Enter, Leave-Leave, Peak-Peak and Combined to estimate travel time. These methods were developed based upon various technical considerations related to multiple detection events. A controlled field experiment was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of alternative methods through comparison with the ground truth travel-time data measured by GPS. Results show that the accuracy of Combined and Peak-Peak methods are higher than others and employment of first detection-event does not necessarily yield the best travel time estimation.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftTransportation Research Board. Annual Meeting Proceedings
Antal sider19
ISSNx000-0023
StatusUdgivet - 2013
BegivenhedTransportation Research Record: Transportation Research Board 92nd Annual Meeting - Washington DC, USA
Varighed: 13 jan. 201017 jan. 2013

Konference

KonferenceTransportation Research Record
LandUSA
ByWashington DC
Periode13/01/201017/01/2013

Fingerprint

Bluetooth
Travel time
Sensors
Global positioning system
Identification (control systems)

Citer dette

Araghi, Bahar Namaki ; Tørholm Christensen , Lars ; Krishnan , Rajesh ; Hammershøj Olesen, Jonas ; Lahrmann, Harry. / Improving The Accuracy Of Bluetooth Based Travel Time Estimation Using Low-Level Sensor Data. I: Transportation Research Board. Annual Meeting Proceedings. 2013.
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title = "Improving The Accuracy Of Bluetooth Based Travel Time Estimation Using Low-Level Sensor Data",
abstract = "Bluetooth sensors have a large detection zone compared to other static Vehicle Re-Identification Systems (VRIS). Although a larger detection zone increases the probability of detecting a Bluetooth-enabled device in a fast-moving vehicle, it increases the probability of multiple detection events triggered by a single device. This could lead to location ambiguity and reduced accuracy of travel time estimation. Therefore, the accuracy of travel time estimations by Bluetooth Technology (BT) depends upon how location ambiguity is handled by the estimation method. The issue of multiple detection events in the context of travel time estimation by BT has been considered by various researchers. However, treatment of this issue has remained simplistic so far. Most previous studies simply used the first detection event (Enter-Enter) as the best estimate. No systematic analysis for exploring the most accurate method of estimating travel time using multiple detection events has been conducted. In this study different aspects of BT detection zone, including size and its impact on the accuracy of travel time estimation, are discussed. Moreover, four alternative methods are applied; namely, Enter-Enter, Leave-Leave, Peak-Peak and Combined to estimate travel time. These methods were developed based upon various technical considerations related to multiple detection events. A controlled field experiment was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of alternative methods through comparison with the ground truth travel-time data measured by GPS. Results show that the accuracy of Combined and Peak-Peak methods are higher than others and employment of first detection-event does not necessarily yield the best travel time estimation.",
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Improving The Accuracy Of Bluetooth Based Travel Time Estimation Using Low-Level Sensor Data. / Araghi, Bahar Namaki; Tørholm Christensen , Lars ; Krishnan , Rajesh ; Hammershøj Olesen, Jonas ; Lahrmann, Harry.

I: Transportation Research Board. Annual Meeting Proceedings, 2013.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftKonferenceartikel i tidsskriftForskningpeer review

TY - GEN

T1 - Improving The Accuracy Of Bluetooth Based Travel Time Estimation Using Low-Level Sensor Data

AU - Araghi, Bahar Namaki

AU - Tørholm Christensen , Lars

AU - Krishnan , Rajesh

AU - Hammershøj Olesen, Jonas

AU - Lahrmann, Harry

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Bluetooth sensors have a large detection zone compared to other static Vehicle Re-Identification Systems (VRIS). Although a larger detection zone increases the probability of detecting a Bluetooth-enabled device in a fast-moving vehicle, it increases the probability of multiple detection events triggered by a single device. This could lead to location ambiguity and reduced accuracy of travel time estimation. Therefore, the accuracy of travel time estimations by Bluetooth Technology (BT) depends upon how location ambiguity is handled by the estimation method. The issue of multiple detection events in the context of travel time estimation by BT has been considered by various researchers. However, treatment of this issue has remained simplistic so far. Most previous studies simply used the first detection event (Enter-Enter) as the best estimate. No systematic analysis for exploring the most accurate method of estimating travel time using multiple detection events has been conducted. In this study different aspects of BT detection zone, including size and its impact on the accuracy of travel time estimation, are discussed. Moreover, four alternative methods are applied; namely, Enter-Enter, Leave-Leave, Peak-Peak and Combined to estimate travel time. These methods were developed based upon various technical considerations related to multiple detection events. A controlled field experiment was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of alternative methods through comparison with the ground truth travel-time data measured by GPS. Results show that the accuracy of Combined and Peak-Peak methods are higher than others and employment of first detection-event does not necessarily yield the best travel time estimation.

AB - Bluetooth sensors have a large detection zone compared to other static Vehicle Re-Identification Systems (VRIS). Although a larger detection zone increases the probability of detecting a Bluetooth-enabled device in a fast-moving vehicle, it increases the probability of multiple detection events triggered by a single device. This could lead to location ambiguity and reduced accuracy of travel time estimation. Therefore, the accuracy of travel time estimations by Bluetooth Technology (BT) depends upon how location ambiguity is handled by the estimation method. The issue of multiple detection events in the context of travel time estimation by BT has been considered by various researchers. However, treatment of this issue has remained simplistic so far. Most previous studies simply used the first detection event (Enter-Enter) as the best estimate. No systematic analysis for exploring the most accurate method of estimating travel time using multiple detection events has been conducted. In this study different aspects of BT detection zone, including size and its impact on the accuracy of travel time estimation, are discussed. Moreover, four alternative methods are applied; namely, Enter-Enter, Leave-Leave, Peak-Peak and Combined to estimate travel time. These methods were developed based upon various technical considerations related to multiple detection events. A controlled field experiment was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of alternative methods through comparison with the ground truth travel-time data measured by GPS. Results show that the accuracy of Combined and Peak-Peak methods are higher than others and employment of first detection-event does not necessarily yield the best travel time estimation.

KW - Travel Time, Bluetooth Technology, Detection Zone, Multiple Detection Events

M3 - Conference article in Journal

JO - Transportation Research Board. Annual Meeting Proceedings

JF - Transportation Research Board. Annual Meeting Proceedings

SN - x000-0023

ER -