Abstract— Increasing the independence of individuals with
tetraplegia is a challenging task. One potential solution is to allow
for use of assistive robotics, specifically an assistive robotic
manipulator (ARM), when solving varying tasks in personal and
remote space. Allowing for remote performances has a positive
influence on the independence of the user, allowing the user to be
self-sufficient even when lying in bed. The control interfaces that
are suitable for severely disabled individuals is lacking. The aim of
this paper is twofold: to allow for remote tongue-based control of
an ARM and second, to compare the effect of semi-automation on
the control of a robotic ARM. Ten able-bodied individuals
participated in a two-day experiment where they were asked to
drive a wheelchair mounted ARM away from the participant and
out of sight. Thereafter, they should either pick up a strawberry
or a bottle from a table. All the participants successfully finished
three trials for three different control methods: 1) manual control
(MA), 2) adaptive level semi-automation (SA), and 3) fixed level
semi-automation (FA). When grasping the strawberry, there was
a significant decrease in the gripping time and number of used
commands when using FA compared to MA. When grasping the
bottle, the SA showed a significant reduction in gripping time and
number of used commands compared with MA. This paper is a
step in the direction of providing severely paralyzed individuals
with a way to increase their independence and overall quality of
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023


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