This article develops a process model of eco-industrial park evolution. It draws on two article communities previously identified through a scoping literature review, concerning the development of eco-industrial parks and industrial symbiosis, respectively. The study seeks to find answers to the main research question: How should phases of eco-industrial park evolution and their critical factors be considered when replicating or reproducing existing eco-industrial park successes in new contexts? By identifying four phases of eco-industrial park evolution and shedding light on the critical factors influencing these, the study presents replication and reproduction recommendations, and thereby provides knowledge to diffuse success stories into other contexts. The study undersores the need for a flexible and adaptive approach to diffusion of EIP successes, considering elements such as the costs and benefits of replication, the idiosyncratic nature of some critical factors, and their relevance in the new context. Moreover, the results of the study highlight the need for capacity building in the replicatee context, focusing on mobilizing and activating existing resources to curate initiatives for EIP formation. Strong collaboration between the replicator and replicatee, where empowerment is central, is seen as a key factor in effective EIP replication.
Original languageEnglish
Article number139499
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2023


  • Diffusion
  • Industrial Symbiosis
  • Process model
  • Replication
  • Reproduction
  • Systematic literature review
  • eco-industrial park
  • Eco-industrial park
  • Industrial symbiosis
  • Critical factors
  • Innovation diffusion
  • Process


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